Comparative assessment of H.265/MPEG-HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-AVC encoders for low-delay video applications

Dan Grois, Detlev Marpe, Tung Nguyen, Ofer Hadar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The popularity of low-delay video applications dramatically increased over the last years due to a rising demand for realtime video content (such as video conferencing or video surveillance), and also due to the increasing availability of relatively inexpensive heterogeneous devices (such as smartphones and tablets). To this end, this work presents a comparative assessment of the two latest video coding standards: H.265/MPEG-HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Coding), H.264/MPEG-AVC (Advanced Video Coding), and also of the VP9 proprietary video coding scheme. For evaluating H.264/MPEG-AVC, an open-source x264 encoder was selected, which has a multi-pass encoding mode, similarly to VP9. According to experimental results, which were obtained by using similar low-delay configurations for all three examined representative encoders, it was observed that H.265/MPEG-HEVC provides significant average bit-rate savings of 32.5%, and 40.8%, relative to VP9 and x264 for the 1-pass encoding, and average bit-rate savings of 32.6%, and 42.2% for the 2-pass encoding, respectively. On the other hand, compared to the x264 encoder, typical low-delay encoding times of the VP9 encoder, are about 2,000 times higher for the 1-pass encoding, and are about 400 times higher for the 2-pass encoding.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationApplications of Digital Image Processing XXXVII
EditorsAndrew G. Tescher
ISBN (Electronic)9781628412444
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014
EventApplications of Digital Image Processing XXXVII - San Diego, United States
Duration: 18 Aug 201421 Aug 2014

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceApplications of Digital Image Processing XXXVII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • AVC
  • Coding efficiency
  • Computational complexity
  • H.264
  • H.265
  • High efficiency video coding (HEVC)
  • Low-delay video coding
  • VP9
  • X264

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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