Comparison between Personal Protective Equipment Wearing Protocols to Shorten Time to Treatment in Pre-Hospital Settings

Or Lavi, Oren Wacht, Idan Menashe, Eli Jaffe, Yuval Bitan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Arrival times at the scene and provision of initial emergency treatment have importance in pre-hospital care settings. Donning proper protective equipment by medical personnel, as was needed during the COVID-19 pandemic, prolongs the time between the arrival of medical personnel to a patient and provision of primary medical care. Objective. We examined the effect of a suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) wearing protocol (gown protocol) on shortening pre-hospital treatment times compared to the current coverall protocol. Method. In this prospective simulation-based study, participants were instructed to inject a practice epinephrine syringe into a simulation mannequin after donning either a gown or a coverall PPE kit in the shortest possible time. Participants performed the two protocols in a randomized order. Donning time, physiological measures, and participants’ perceptions were measured after completion of each of the protocols. Results. Donning times and heart rates were significantly lower in the gown protocol compared to the standard coverall protocol. In addition, participants reported that the gown protocol was more comfortable and allowed provision of better medical care. Conclusions. Advantages of using the new protocol included shortening the time until primary medical care can be provided, perceptions of greater comfort, less difficulty in administering medical care, and lower heart rate values.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7926
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • COVID-19
  • PPE donning protocol
  • personal protective equipment
  • pre-hospital setting
  • shortening time to treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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