Comparison of proactive and reactive interaction modes in a mobile robotic telecare study

Omer Keidar, Yisrael Parmet, Samuel A. Olatunji, Yael Edan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mobile robotic telepresence systems require that information about the environment, the task, and the robot be presented to a remotely located user (operator) who controls the robot for a specific task. In this study, two interaction modes, proactive and reactive, that differ in the way the user receives information from the robot, were compared in an experimental system simulating a healthcare setting. The users controlled a mobile telepresence robot that delivered and received items (medication, food, or drink), and also obtained metrics (vital signs) from a simulated patient while the users performed a secondary healthcare-related task (they compiled health records which were displayed to them on the screen and answered related questions). The effect of the two interaction modes on overall performance and user perception was evaluated through a within-participant study design conducted with 50 participants belonging to two different types of populations (with and without a technological background). Efficiency, effectiveness, understanding, satisfaction, and situation awareness were defined as the dependent variables measured both objectively and subjectively. The proactive mode increased user performance, and understanding of the system and reduced the workload compared to the reactive mode. However, several of the users valued the option of increased user control experienced in the reactive mode. We, therefore, proposed design suggestions to highlight some of the benefits of factoring the reactive mode into the design as a hybrid mode.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104269
JournalApplied Ergonomics
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2024


  • Assistive robots
  • Feedback
  • Human-robot interaction
  • Interaction modes
  • Mobile robotic telepresence
  • Proactive
  • Reactive
  • Telecare
  • Telerobotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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