Conditioning film and initial biofilm formation on ceramics tiles in the marine environment

Nachshon Siboni, Michal Lidor, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Ariel Kushmaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The formation of biofilm on surfaces in the marine environment is believed to be an important factor driving colonization and recruitment of some sessile invertebrate communities. The present study follows the process of biofilm buildup on unglazed ceramic tiles deployed into the marine environment in the northern Gulf of Eilat. PCR-DGGE of film eluted from the tile surface indicated the presence of bacteria as early as 2 h after deployment. The makeup of the biofilm bacterial community was dynamic. Bacterial presence was apparent microscopically 6 h after deployment, though a developed biofilm was not observed until 24 h following deployment. Total organic carbon (TOC) data suggest that a conditioning film was built within the first four hours following deployment. During this time period TOC reached the highest level possibly due to adhesion of organics (e.g., sugars, proteins and humic substances) from the water column. We suggest that the primary adhering bacteria, whilst still in the reversible stage of adhesion, utilize the conditioning film as food causing the decrease in TOC. Understanding the dynamics between these primary bacterial settlers is of importance, since they may play a role on the succession of invertebrate species settlement onto artificial surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-29
Number of pages6
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2007


  • Bacteria
  • Biofilm
  • Conditioning film
  • Early colonizers
  • Recruitment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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