In this paper the consequences of introducing spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale invariance through a scale that is obtained from the integration of the equations of motion of four index field strengths are studied. Confinement is obtained for all values of this constant of integration. For negative values two point charges have a potential energy that grows linearly with distance, but they can be arbitrarily far apart (although this is costly from the point of view of energy). For positive values of the integration constant, there is no possibility of separating charges too far apart; at a certain point a new charge of opposite sign has to be added to form a neutral system that cannot be bigger that a critical size. We discuss this using different methods, including some developed by Adler and Piran. In addition, we discuss a few alternative effective actions that are similar and that also give confinement.
- Confinement quarks and gluons
- Nonlinear field theory
- Spontaneous breaking of scale invariance