TY - JOUR

T1 - Conflict-Free Coloring of String Graphs

AU - Keller, Chaya

AU - Rok, Alexandre

AU - Smorodinsky, Shakhar

N1 - Funding Information:
C. Keller: Parts of this research were done when the author was at Ben-Gurion University. Research partially supported by Grant 635/16 from the Israel Science Foundation, by the Shulamit Aloni Post-Doctoral Fellowship of the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology, and by the Kreitman Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowship. A. Rok and S. Smorodinsky: Research partially supported by Grant 635/16 from the Israel Science Foundation.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

PY - 2021/6/1

Y1 - 2021/6/1

N2 - Conflict-free coloring (in short, CF-coloring) of a graph G= (V, E) is a coloring of V such that the punctured neighborhood of each vertex contains a vertex whose color differs from the color of any other vertex in that neighborhood. Bounds on CF-chromatic numbers have been studied both for general graphs and for intersection graphs of geometric shapes. In this paper we obtain such bounds for several classes of string graphs, i.e., intersection graphs of curves in the plane: (i) we provide a general upper bound of O(χ(G) 2log n) on the CF-chromatic number of any string graph G with n vertices in terms of the classical chromatic number χ(G). This result stands in contrast to general graphs where the CF-chromatic number can be Ω(n) already for bipartite graphs. (ii) For some central classes of string graphs, the CF-chromatic number is as large as Θ(n), which was shown to be the upper bound for any graph even in the non-geometric context. For several such classes (e.g., intersection graphs of frames) we prove a tight bound of Θ(log n) with respect to the relaxed notion of k-CF-coloring (in which the punctured neighborhood of each vertex contains a color that appears at most k times), for a small constant k. (iii) We obtain a general upper bound on the k-CF chromatic number of arbitrary hypergraphs (i.e., the number of colors needed to color the vertices, such that in each hyperedge there is a color that appears at most k times): any hypergraph with m hyperedges can be k-CF colored with O~(m1k+1) colors. This bound, which extends a bound of Pach and Tardos (Comb Probab Comput 18(5):819–834, 2009), is tight for some string graphs, up to a logarithmic factor. (iv) Our fourth result concerns circle graphs in which coloring problems are motivated by VLSI designs. We prove a tight bound of Θ(log n) on the CF-chromatic number of circle graphs, and an upper bound of O(log 3n) for a wider class of string graphs that contains circle graphs, namely, intersection graphs of grounded L-shapes.

AB - Conflict-free coloring (in short, CF-coloring) of a graph G= (V, E) is a coloring of V such that the punctured neighborhood of each vertex contains a vertex whose color differs from the color of any other vertex in that neighborhood. Bounds on CF-chromatic numbers have been studied both for general graphs and for intersection graphs of geometric shapes. In this paper we obtain such bounds for several classes of string graphs, i.e., intersection graphs of curves in the plane: (i) we provide a general upper bound of O(χ(G) 2log n) on the CF-chromatic number of any string graph G with n vertices in terms of the classical chromatic number χ(G). This result stands in contrast to general graphs where the CF-chromatic number can be Ω(n) already for bipartite graphs. (ii) For some central classes of string graphs, the CF-chromatic number is as large as Θ(n), which was shown to be the upper bound for any graph even in the non-geometric context. For several such classes (e.g., intersection graphs of frames) we prove a tight bound of Θ(log n) with respect to the relaxed notion of k-CF-coloring (in which the punctured neighborhood of each vertex contains a color that appears at most k times), for a small constant k. (iii) We obtain a general upper bound on the k-CF chromatic number of arbitrary hypergraphs (i.e., the number of colors needed to color the vertices, such that in each hyperedge there is a color that appears at most k times): any hypergraph with m hyperedges can be k-CF colored with O~(m1k+1) colors. This bound, which extends a bound of Pach and Tardos (Comb Probab Comput 18(5):819–834, 2009), is tight for some string graphs, up to a logarithmic factor. (iv) Our fourth result concerns circle graphs in which coloring problems are motivated by VLSI designs. We prove a tight bound of Θ(log n) on the CF-chromatic number of circle graphs, and an upper bound of O(log 3n) for a wider class of string graphs that contains circle graphs, namely, intersection graphs of grounded L-shapes.

KW - Circle graphs

KW - Conflict-free coloring

KW - Grounded L-shapes

KW - String graphs

KW - k-CF coloring

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85079168747&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00454-020-00179-y

DO - 10.1007/s00454-020-00179-y

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85079168747

VL - 65

SP - 1337

EP - 1372

JO - Discrete and Computational Geometry

JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry

SN - 0179-5376

IS - 4

ER -