Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors

Bartholomäus Pieber, Menny Shalom, Markus Antonietti, Peter H. Seeberger, Kerry Gilmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9976-9979
Number of pages4
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number31
StatePublished - 26 Jul 2018


  • carbon nitrides
  • flow chemistry
  • fluorination
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • photocatalysis


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