Controlled alteration of the shape and conformational stability of α-helical cell-lytic peptides: Effect on mode of action and cell specificity

Igor Zelezetsky, Sabrina Pacor, Ulrike Pag, Niv Papo, Yechiel Shai, Hans Georg Sahl, Alessandro Tossi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations

Abstract

A novel method, based on the rational and systematic modulation of macroscopic structural characteristics on a template originating from a large number of natural, cell-lytic, amphipathic α-helical peptides, was used to probe how the depths and shapes of hydrophobic and polar faces and the conformational stability affect antimicrobial activity and selectivity with respect to eukaryotic cells. A plausible mode of action explaining the peptides' behaviour in model membranes, bacteria and host cells is proposed. Cytotoxic activity, in general, correlated strongly with the hydrophobic sector depth, and required a majority of aliphatic residue side chains having more than two carbon atoms. It also correlated significantly with the size of polar sector residues, which determines the penetration depth of the peptide via the so-called snorkel effect. Both an oblique gradient of long to short aliphatic residues along the hydrophobic face and a stabilized helical structure increased activity against host cells but not against bacteria, as revealed by haemolysis, flow cytofluorimetric studies on lymphocytes and surface plasmon resonance studies with model phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol membranes. The mode of interaction changes radically for a peptide with a stable, preformed helical conformation compared with others that form a structure only on membrane binding. The close correlation between effects observed in biological and model systems suggests that the 'carpet model' correctly represents the type of peptides that are bacteria-selective, whereas the behaviour of those that lyse host cells is more complex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-188
Number of pages12
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume390
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Amphipathic helix
  • Antimicrobial peptide
  • Cell specificity
  • Cell-lytic peptide
  • Mode of action
  • Surface plasmon resonance

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