Converging Three-Dimensional Stokes Flow of Two Fluids in a T-Type Bifurcation

Joseph Ong, Giora Enden, Aleksander S. Popel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Studies of three-dimensional Stokes flow of two Newtonian fluids that converge in a T-type bifurcation have important applications in polymer coextrusion, blood flow through the venous microcirculation, and other problems of science and technology. This flow problem is simulated numerically by means of the finite element method, and the solution demonstrates that the viscosity ratio between the two fluids critically affects flow behaviour. For the parameters investigated, we find that as the viscosity ratio between the side branch and the main branch increases, the interface between the merging fluids bulges away from the side branch. The viscosity ratio also affects the velocity distribution: at the outlet branch, the largest radial gradients of axial velocity appear in the less-viscous fluid. The distribution of wall shear stress is non-axisymmetric in the outlet branch and may be discontinuous at the interface between the fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-72
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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