Aims: This 'real-world' investigation attempted to determine the long-term prognoses of patients who have undergone successful revascularization of chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions. Methods: All consecutive unselected patients from January 2006 to June 2011, undergoing stenting for CTO (n=272), were retrospectively identified through an institutional registry. Procedural failure was defined as final diameter stenosis greater than 30% or postdilatation thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow less than 3. Outcomes were assessed based on stenting type [bare metal stent (BMS), drug-eluting stent (DES), or mixed] in the successful procedural cohort. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to account for known baseline cardiovascular risk imbalances. The primary endpoint was 2-year target vessel revascularization. Results: Overall procedural failure occurred in 55 (20.2%) patients presenting with CTO lesions. Failed revascularization was independently associated with multivessel disease, lesion lengths greater than 15mm, tortuous segments, and presence of calcifications. Major complications included coronary dissection (10%) and perforation (2%). Of the successful procedures, 141 (64%) underwent pure DES, 46 (21%) pure BMS, and 34 (15%) mixed stenting. At 2-year follow-up, fewer patients in the DES group required repeat revascularization compared to the mixed stenting group (6 vs. 26%; P=0.002). Mixed stenting was an independent predictor of long-term target vessel revascularization (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.1, P=0.02) compared to DES. Conclusions: Failed revascularization of CTO lesions occurs in a fifth of patients and appears to be associated with complex vessel anatomy. Our data suggest that DES use in this setting are associated with improved 2-year clinical endpoints compared with pure BMS or mixed stenting approaches.
- Bare metal stents
- Chronic total occlusion
- Drug-eluting stents
- Target vessel revascularization