Cruising Drivers’ Response to Changes in Parking Prices in a Serious Game

Sharon Geva, Eran Ben-Elia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Scarcity of on-street parking in cities centers is a known factor motivating drivers to drive slowly (“to cruise”) while searching for an available parking place and is associated with negative externalities e.g., congestion, accidents, fuel waste and air pollution. Finding the correct prices is suggested to bring cruising to a sustainable level. However, current research methods based on surveys and simulations fail to provide a full understanding of drivers’ cruising preference and their behavioral response to price changes. We used the PARKGAME serious game, which provides a real-world abstraction of the dynamic cruising experience. Eighty-three players participated in an experiment under two pricing scenarios. Pricing was spatially designed as “price rings”, decreasing when receding from the desired destination point. Based on the data, we analyzed search time, parking distance, parking location choice and spatial searching patterns. We show that such a pricing policy may substantially reduce the cruising problem, motivating drivers to park earlier—further away from the destination or in the lot, especially when occupancy levels are extremely high. We further discuss the policy implications of these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Social Simulation - Proceedings of the 16th Social Simulation Conference
EditorsMarcin Czupryna, Bogumił Kamiński
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9783030928421
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022
Event16th Social Simulation Conference, SSC 2021 - Kraków, Poland
Duration: 20 Sep 202124 Sep 2021

Publication series

NameSpringer Proceedings in Complexity
ISSN (Print)2213-8684
ISSN (Electronic)2213-8692


Conference16th Social Simulation Conference, SSC 2021


  • Cruising
  • Driver behavior
  • Parking search
  • Serious games

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications


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