In recent years, research initiatives on renewable bioenergy or biofuels have been gaining momentum, not only due to fast depletion of finite reserves of fossil fuels but also because of the associated concerns for the environment and future energy security. In the last few decades, interest is growing concerning microalgae as the third-generation biofuel feedstock. The CO2 fixation ability and conversion of it into value-added compounds, devoid of challenging food and feed crops, make these photosynthetic microorganisms an optimistic producer of biofuel from an environmental point of view. Microalgal-derived fuels are currently being considered as clean, renewable, and promising sustainable biofuel. Therefore, most research targets to obtain strains with the highest lipid productivity and a high growth rate at the lowest cultivation costs. Different methods and strategies to attain higher biomass and lipid accumulation in microalgae have been extensively reported in the previous research, but there are fewer inclusive reports that summarize the conventional methods with the modern techniques for lipid enhancement and biodiesel production from microalgae. Therefore, the current review focuses on the latest techniques and advances in different cultivation conditions, the effect of different abiotic and heavy metal stress, and the role of nanoparticles (NPs) in the stimulation of lipid accumulation in microalgae. Techniques such as genetic engineering, where particular genes associated with lipid metabolism, are modified to boost lipid synthesis within the microalgae, the contribution of “Omics” in metabolic pathway studies. Further, the contribution of CRISPR/Cas9 system technique to the production of microalgae biofuel is also briefly described.
- Genetic engineering
- Lipid accumulation
- Omics technology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)