Current trends in bio-waste mediated metal/metal oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery

B. H.Jaswanth Gowda, Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed, Sampath Chinnam, Karthika Paul, Md Ashrafuzzaman, Murthy Chavali, Rekha Gahtori, Soumya Pandit, Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Piyush Kumar Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Nanoparticles have received much attention in biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. The metal/metal oxide nanoparticles are involved in various applications, including drug delivery, therapy, and diagnosis. Subsequently, many hazardous chemicals and organic solvents were utilized to synthesize the metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, the green synthesis came into the limelight to overcome the economic and environmental burden. The green synthesis represents the production of nanoparticles that reduce or terminate the use of hazardous materials and solvents that encourages environmental safety. The frequently utilized green materials in numerous metallic nanoparticle syntheses include microbes, plants, fruits, and other food sources. However, the burden on global food security and limited natural resources creates distress over environmental sustainability. Thus, adopting bio-waste materials to produce highly efficient, biocompatible, economic, and eco-friendly metallic nanoparticles could support waste valorization and lead to environmental sustainability. Therefore, the present review focuses on the various bio-waste materials adopted to synthesize metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. We have thoroughly discussed the potential of chemicals-mediated metal/metal oxide nanoparticles in different drug delivery applications such as tumor targeting, brain targeting, stimuli-responsive drug release followed by large molecules delivery. Consequently, this can open a new road for researchers to explore drug delivery applications using bio-waste mediated green synthesized metallic nanoparticles. Finally, the cytotoxicity aspects of such nanoparticles are meticulously discussed compared to chemically synthesized counterparts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103305
JournalJournal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
StatePublished - 1 May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Biodegradable waste
  • Biowaste
  • Drug delivery
  • Metallic nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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