CXCL6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein-2): A novel chemokine involved in the innate immune response of the amniotic cavity

Pooja Mittal, Roberto Romero, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Samuel S. Edwin, Francesca Gotsch, Shali Mazaki-tovi, Jimmy Espinoza, Offer Erez, Chia Ling Nhan-Chang, Nandor G. Than, Edi Vaisbuch, Sonia S. Hassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Problem: CXCL6 is a potent pro-inflammatory neutrophil chemoattractant and activator whose activity during pregnancy is not well-established. The purpose of this study was to determine if CXCL6 is present in amniotic fluid (AF) and if CXCL6 concentrations in AF change with labor (pre-term and term) or intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI). Method of study: A cross-sectional study was designed including the following groups: (1) mid-trimester (n=65); (2) term no labor (n=20); (3) term labor (n=44); (4) patients with pre-term labor (PTL) with subsequent term delivery (n=57); (5) PTL without IAI who delivered pre-term (n=47); and (6) PTL with IAI (n=62). AF CXCL6 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results: CXCL6 was present in all term samples, but undetectable in 64/65 mid-trimester specimens. Patients with PTL and IAI had a significantly higher median AF CXCL6 concentration than those with PTL without IAI [228.9 pg/mL (0.0-8344.8) versus 55.7 pg/mL (0-454.4); P<0.05] and those with PTL and term delivery [41.5 pg/mL (0-279.0); P<0.05]. The median AF CXCL6 concentration did not change with spontaneous term labor [term no labor: 81.1 pg/mL (8.5-201.7) versus term labor: 75.2 pg/mL (6.7-378.7): P=0.7]. Conclusion: (1) CXCL6 is detectable in AF and its concentration increases with gestational age; (2) IAI results in increased AF CXCL6 concentrations, suggesting that CXCL6 plays a role in the deployment of an inflammatory response; (3) In contrast to related chemokines, specifically IL-8, AF CXCL6 does not appear to be involved in spontaneous term parturition. These observations are novel, and suggest a role for CXCL6 in the innate immune response to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-257
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 29 Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Amniotic fluid
  • CXCL6
  • Chemokine
  • Intraamniotic inflammation/infection
  • Pre-term labor
  • Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


Dive into the research topics of 'CXCL6 (granulocyte chemotactic protein-2): A novel chemokine involved in the innate immune response of the amniotic cavity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this