Dairy calcium intake, serum vitamin D, and successful weight loss

Danit R. Shahar, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Drora Fraser, Hillel Vardi, Joachim Thiery, Georg Martin Fiedler, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Meir J. Stampfer, Iris Shai

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    67 Scopus citations


    Background: The role of dairy calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentrations in weight loss is controversial. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of dairy calcium intake and serum vitamin D with weight loss. Design: We analyzed data from participants in the 2-y Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) [n = 322; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 31; mean age: 52 y]. A representative sample (n = 126) was followed for 6 mo for serum vitamin D changes. Results: Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations decreased significantly across the tertiles of baseline BMI (25.6 ± 8.0, 24.1 ± 8.9, and 22.9 ± 6.8 ng/mL, respectively; P for trend = 0.02). Baseline concentrations of vitamin D and dairy calcium intake were not associated with subsequent weight loss. However, in repeated-measures models adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, total fat intake, and diet group assignment, higher 6-mo tertile levels of dairy calcium intake (median for tertiles: 156.5, 358.0, and 582.9 mg/d, respectively) and serum 25(OH)D (14.5, 21.2, and 30.2 ng/mL, respectively) were associated with increased weight loss across the 2-y intervention (-3.3, -3.5, and -5.3 kg, respectively, for dairy calcium; P = 0.043; -3.1, -3.8, and -5.6 kg, respectively, for vitamin D; P = 0.013). In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted simultaneously for age, sex, baseline BMI, total fat intake, diet group, vitamin D concentration, and dairy calcium, an increase of 1 SD in dairy calcium intake increased the likelihood of weight loss of >4.5 kg in the preceding 6 mo [odds ratio (OR): 1.45; P = 0.046]. A similar increase was seen for serum 25(OH)D at the 6-mo point (OR: 1.7; P = 0.009). Conclusion: Our study suggests that both higher dairy calcium intake and increased serum vitamin D are related to greater diet-induced weight loss. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00160108.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1017-1022
    Number of pages6
    JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - 1 Nov 2010

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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