Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined With Brief Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Prospective Multisite Randomized Trial

Moshe Isserles, Aron Tendler, Yiftach Roth, Alexander Bystritsky, Daniel M. Blumberger, Herbert Ward, David Feifel, Laura Viner, Walter Duffy, Joseph Zohar, Corey J. Keller, Mahendra T. Bhati, Amit Etkin, Mark S. George, Igor Filipcic, Kyle Lapidus, Leah Casuto, Sandeep Vaishnavi, Ahava Stein, Lisa DeutschFrederic Deutsch, Oscar Morales, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Abraham Zangen, Kerry J. Ressler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and debilitating. While deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has shown preliminary efficacy, exposure therapy remains the most efficacious, though limited, treatment in PTSD. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in extinction learning, suggesting that concurrent mPFC stimulation may enhance exposure therapy. In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, the efficacy and safety of mPFC dTMS combined with a brief exposure procedure were studied in patients with PTSD. Methods: Immediately following exposure to their trauma narrative, 125 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive dTMS or sham. Twelve sessions were administered over 4 weeks, with a primary end point of change in 5-week Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 score. This clinical study did not include biological markers. Results: Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 score improved significantly in both groups at 5 weeks, though the improvement was smaller in the dTMS group (16.32) compared with the sham group (20.52; p =.027). At 9 weeks, improvement continued in Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 score in both groups but remained smaller in dTMS (19.0) versus sham (24.4; p =.024). Conclusions: Both groups showed significant PTSD symptom improvement, possibly from the brief script-driven imagery exposure. While our design was unable to rule out placebo effects, the magnitude and durability of improvement suggest that repeated ultrabrief exposure therapy alone may be an effective treatment for PTSD, warranting additional study. The surprising and unexpected effect in the dTMS group also suggests that repeated mPFC stimulation with the H7 coil may interfere with trauma memory–mediated extinction. Our results provide new insight for dTMS approaches for possible future avenues to treat PTSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)721-728
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number10
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2021


  • Deep TMS
  • Exposure therapy
  • PTSD
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Script-driven imagery
  • mPFC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry


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