Degradation kinetics of Endosulfan isomers by micron- and nano-sized zero valent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI)

Swatantra Pratap Singh, Purnendu Bose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The pesticide Endosulfan is commercially available as a mixture of two conformal isomers, i.e. Endosulfan-1 (Endo-1) and Endosulfan-2 (Endo-2). Endosulfan has been characterized as extremely toxic by USEPA and is persistent in nature. In this study micron- and nano-sized zero-valent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI) were used for rapid degradation of the Endosulfan isomers. RESULTS: Both Endo-1 and Endo-2 undergo abiotic hydrolysis resulting in the formation of equi-molar quantities of Endosulfan alcohol. During interaction with MZVI, the degradation rates of both Endo-1 and Endo-2 were observed to be pseudo-first-order and the surface normalized degradation rate constants (ks) were 6.33 × 10−4 L h−1 m−2 and 6.38 × 10−4 L h−1 m−2 for Endo-1 and Endo-2, respectively. During interaction with NZVI, ks values for Endo-1 and Endo-2 were 2.58 × 10−2 L h−1m−2 and 1.21 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2, respectively. GC-MS analysis showed evidence of the formation of partially dechlorinated by-products due to Endo-1 and Endo-2 interactions with MZVI and NZVI. CONCLUSIONS: Surface area normalized degradation rate constants (ks) for Endo-1 and Endo-2 degradation by NZVI were 40 and 19 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding values by MZVI. This indicates higher reactivity of the NZVI surface vis-à-vis Endo-1 and Endo-2 degradation. Partially dechlorinated by-products observed during interaction of Endo-1 and Endo-2 with NZVI and MZVI may be less toxic and more amenable to subsequent biodegradation than the parent compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2313-2321
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • dechlorinated by-products
  • degradation kinetics
  • endosulfan isomers
  • micron- and nano-scale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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