Dependency, self-criticism, social context and distress: Comparing moderating and mediating models

Beatriz Priel, Golan Shahar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


Moderating and mediating models of dependency and self-criticism as vulnerabilities to emotional distress are compared. According to the moderating model, stressful events and social support moderate the vulnerability of self-critical and dependent individuals. In contrast, mediating models relate to stress and support as mediators assuming that individuals generate stress and lack of support over time. One hundred and eighty-two young adults were assessed longitudinally, and hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation modeling were performed. The moderating model was found valid for describing the vulnerability of dependent individuals, who reported increased distress only after experiencing interpersonal stress. The mediating model appropriately described the vulnerability of self-critical individuals, who reported increased stress and decreased support over time, which partly accounted for their increased distress. These findings are discussed in relation to the formulation of causal models of personality and distress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-525
Number of pages11
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology (all)


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