This paper presents a new method for the design and optimization of solar industrial process hot water systems with storage. The single-pass open-loop design thermally "decouples" collectors from storage, hence insuring that collectors always heat the coldest fluid possible and that stored heat can be completely depleted by the nighttime load. So the single-pass open-loop design, in spite of the relatively low flow rates entailed, operates at higher system efficiency than conventional system designs. One solved example for an an industrial hot water application shows that the single-pass open-loop design delivers about 30 per cent more useful energy with roughly 30 per cent less storage than the conventional design. Moreover, storage tanks do not have to stand high pressures and can thus be significantly cheaper than in conventional systems. The effects of collector operating time, heat exchangers, and secondary system losses are also treated. The new method is extended to cover systems that require weekend storage. The introduction of weekend storage may be cost effective because it enables the designer to reduce collector area without reducing the yearly useful energy delivered by the system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science (all)