Development of a ToF Pixel with VOD Shutter Mechanism, High IR QE, Four Storages, and CDS

Erez Tadmor, David Cohen, Giora Yahav, Guy Tennenholtz, Gadi Lehana, Assaf Lahav, Adi Birman, Amos Fenigstein, Alexander Fish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In this paper we discuss the development of an indirect time-of-flight (ToF) pixel in the 0.11-μm CMOS image sensor technology. The pixel design is based on a pinned-photodiode structure with a novel vertical overflow drain (VOD) shutter mechanism used for fast modulation. We present the second generation of the pixel, with a greatly improved VOD structure that enables a fast shutter efficiency better than 1:100 and a deeper photodiode collection depth for better quantum efficiency in the near-infrared wavelengths. We present a new 6.7-μm pixel design with four pinned storage diodes (SDs) that feature in-pixel complete charge transfer and enable correlated-double-sampling readout as well as an almost simultaneous global shutter exposure of up to four interleaved frames to be used for the scene depth computation. The novel design features a low readout noise of 7.5e- and a full-well-capacity of 9500e- per SD (a total of 38 000e- per pixel).

Original languageEnglish
Article number7469334
Pages (from-to)2892-2899
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • CMOS image sensor
  • time of flight (ToF) imaging
  • time resolved

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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