Differential activation of the immune system by virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae strains determines recovery or death of the host

Yaffa Mizrachi-Nebenzahl, S. Lifshitz, R. Teitelbaum, S. Novick, A. Levi, D. Benharroch, E. Ling, R. Dagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection may result in asymptomatic carriage, mucosal or invasive disease. We hypothesize that self-limiting or fatal disease outcome follows infection with S. pneumoniae differential activation of the host immune response. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intranasally with S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 14 strain DW14 and mortality, bacterial load, pathological changes in the lungs and cytokines mRNA levels in the spleen were analysed. No differences between the C57BL/6 and the BALB/c inbred mice were observed except for the severity of their lung pathology and IL-4 expression. Infection of the two mouse strains with S. pneumoniae WU2 resulted in sepsis and death that occurred within 4 days post-inoculation. This death was preceded, in both mouse strains, in an increase over time of the lung bacterial load and bacteraemia. The lung pathology was characterized by diffuse pneumonia with marked congestion of the lungs. Analysis of mRNA expression of cytokines in the spleen revealed no alterations in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ and induction of IL-10 and IL-4. The two strains of mice survived infection with S. pneumoniae DW14. This was accompanied by a reduction over time of lung bacterial load and bacteraemia. The lung pathology was characterized by focal lymphocyte infiltration and preserved architecture of the organ. Analysis of mRNA expression of cytokines in the spleen revealed a significant decrease in the levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression, which usually precedes cytokine protein expression. Interestingly, a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 mRNA expression was found in BALB/c mice only. This study suggests that differential activation or evasion of cytokine expression by S. pneumoniae virulent strains determines disease outcome regardless of the host's immunogenetic background.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Volume134
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2003

Keywords

  • Disease development
  • Immune system
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Virulence

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