Discrimination and mental health among Palestinian minority men in Israel

N. Daoud, M. Gao, A. Osman, C. Muntaner

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting Abstract


Few studies had been conducted on institutional discrimination and, of these, even fewer have non-Western settings. We examined associations between interpersonal and institutional group discrimination and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Palestinian minority men who are citizens of Israel.
We drew on a nationwide stratified cluster sample of 964 Arab men (age 18-64). First, 20 Arab localities were selected out of a total of 63 based on the area (north, center and south), locality size and socioeconomic status. Then the men were randomly selected from these localities using the Ministry of Interior registry. Eligible men (current or former smokers) were interviewed face-to-face in 2012-2013 using a structured questionnaire in Arabic after signing a consent form. The response rate was 83%. Interpersonal discrimination was assessed using an adapted Arabic version of the experiences of discrimination scale (EOD-A). Perceived institutional group discrimination (IGD) was assessed using a new scale developed and validated for this study. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of both forms of discrimination on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), while adjusting for socio-demographic and socio-economic factors.


The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.7% and anxiety 45.5%. Of the total sample 41.6% of Arab minority men reported interpersonal discrimination and 50.8% reported institutional group discrimination. In the multivariate analysis, experiencing interpersonal discrimination was associated with greater depressive symptoms (OR = 2.36 and 95% CI = 1.69-1.57) and anxiety (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.66-2.87). Institutional group discrimination was associated only with anxiety (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The magnitude of these associations did not change in the model that considered both forms of discrimination.
Findings suggest that improving mental health among Palestinian minority men in Israel requires grappling with interpersonal and institutional group discrimination. Mechanisms of these associations warrant future research.
Original languageEnglish GB
Pages (from-to)50-50
Number of pages1
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 2018


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