Dissolution-Dictated Recrystallization in Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites and Size Engineering in δ-CsPbI3 Nanostructures

Hairong Zhao, Yixi Wang, Chengjie Wang, Anil Kumar Bandela, Udayabhaskararao Thumu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Crystal strain, crystal size, and reactivity with surrounding species underlie the thermal stability of the photoactive γ-CsPbI3 in theoretical and practical perspectives. The spontaneous transformation of optically γ-CsPbI3 nanocrystals (NCs) to inactive δ-CsPbI3 nanostructures (NSs) hinders the development of the fabrication of efficient photovoltaic devices. To understand this process, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on the phase transformation kinetics and the nucleation and growth of δ-CsPbI3 NSs from γ-CsPbI3 NCs (∼8 nm) in a stepwise manner. The reaction scheme involved independently carrying out reactions where the γ-CsPbI3 NCs reacted with optimized amounts of aprotic polar solvent (acetone), which leads to dissolution followed by a recrystallization process at solvent interfaces (acetone/hexane) to observe even the early changes in this process. Interestingly, the γ-CsPbI3 NCs during dissolution in acetone enable the release of PbI2 NCs, eventually leading to changes in crystal phase, size, and shape of the NCs. As a result, we observed unique absorption spectra and multiple emission features that enable white light emission. In contrast to the previously explored phase transformation process (γ-CsPbI3 to δ-CsPbI3 NSs) observed in larger-sized γ-CsPbI3 NCs (∼18 nm), which occurs through an oriented self-assembly process when the NCs come in contact with polar solvents, in our two-step solvent introduction procedure, the γ-CsPbI3 NCs first transform into zero-dimensional Cs4PbI6 NCs by their dissolution in acetone. Depending on the rate of dissolution which is proportional to the amounts of supplied acetone, the reaction solution can result in Cs4PbI6 NCs, γ-CsPbI3 NCs, or δ-CsPbI3 NSs during the recrystallization process. Furthermore, our investigations provided insights into this phase transition mechanism governed by the seeded growth phenomenon. This research facilitates enhanced control over undesired transitions, thereby promoting the development of refined and uncomplicated methodologies for recycling stable γ-CsPbI3 NCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7412-7423
Number of pages12
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number10
StatePublished - 4 Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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