Drug Therapies for Diabetes

Roni Weinberg Sibony, Omri Segev, Saar Dor, Itamar Raz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) necessitates a multifaceted approach that combines behavioral and pharmacological interventions to mitigate complications and sustain a high quality of life. Treatment encompasses the management of glucose levels, weight, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, and associated complications through medication and lifestyle adjustments. Metformin, a standard in diabetes management, continues to serve as the primary, first-line oral treatment across all age groups due to its efficacy, versatility in combination therapy, and cost-effectiveness. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) offer notable benefits for HbA1c and weight reduction, with significant cardiovascular benefits. Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLT-2i) lower glucose levels independently of insulin while conferring notable benefits for cardiovascular, renal, and heart-failure outcomes. Combined therapies emphasizing early and sustained glycemic control are promising options for diabetes management. As insulin therapy remains pivotal, metformin and non-insulin agents such as GLP-1 RA and SGLT-2i offer compelling options. Notably, exciting novel treatments like the dual GLP-1/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) agonist show promise for substantially reducing glycated hemoglobin and body weight. This comprehensive review highlights the evolving landscape of pharmacotherapy in diabetes, the drugs currently available for treating diabetes, their effectiveness and efficacy, the impact on target organs, and side effects. This work also provides insights that can support the customization of treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17147
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number24
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • combination therapy
  • disease management
  • GLP1 RA
  • SGLT-2I
  • T2DM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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