Dynamical measure and field theory models free of the cosmological constant problem

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Abstract

We study field theory models in the context of a gravitational theory without the cosmological constant problem (CCP). The theory is based on the requirement that the measure of integration in the action be not necessarily (Formula presented) but be determined dynamically through additional degrees of freedom, like four scalar fields (Formula presented) We study three possibilities for the general structure of the theory. (A) The total action has the form (Formula presented) where the measure (Formula presented) is built from the scalars (Formula presented) in such a way that the transformation (Formula presented) does not affect the equations of motion. Then an infinite dimensional shift group of the measure fields (SGMF) (Formula presented) by arbitrary functions of the Lagrangian density L, (Formula presented) is recognized as the symmetry group of the action up to an integral of total divergence. (B) The total action has the form (Formula presented) (Formula presented) (Formula presented) which is the only model different from (A) and invariant under the SGMF [but now with (Formula presented) Similarly, now only (Formula presented) satisfies the requirement that the transformation (Formula presented) not affect the equations of motion. In both cases (A) and (B) it is assumed that (Formula presented) do not depend on (Formula presented) (C) The action includes a term which breaks the SGMF symmetry. It is shown that in the first order formalism a constraint appears which allows us to solve the scalar field related to the dynamical measure degrees of freedom in terms of matter fields. The remarkable feature of the models discussed in this paper is that for all cases [(A), (B), and (C)], after the change of variables to the conformal Einstein frame, the classical field equations take exactly the form of general relativity (GR). Therefore the models are free from the well-known problem of the usual scalar-tensor theories in what concerns the classical GR tests. The only difference of the field equations in the Einstein frame from the canonical equations of the self-consistent system of Einstein’s gravity and matter fields is the appearance of the effective scalar field potential which vanishes in a true vacuum state (TVS) without fine-tuning in cases (A) and (B). To illustrate how the theory works, we present a few explicit field theory models where it is possible to combine the solution of the CCP with (1) the possibility for an inflationary scenario, and (2) spontaneously broken gauge unified theories (including fermions). In case (C), the breaking of the SGMF symmetry induces a nonzero energy density for the TVS. When considering only a linear potential for a scalar field (Formula presented) in (Formula presented) the continuous symmetry (Formula presented) is respected. Surprisingly, in this case spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place while no massless (“Goldstone”) boson appears. We discuss the role of the SGMF symmetry for quantization and the possible connection of this theory with theories of extended objects.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Volume60
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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