BACKGROUND: Following 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) implementation in infants worldwide, overall and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined in children, with variable indirect impact on adults.
METHODS: A population-based, prospective, nationwide active surveillance of IPD in Israel, 2004-2019 (for adults ≥18 years, 2009-2019). The 7-valent PCV (PCV7)/PCV13 were implemented in Israel in July 2009/November 2010, respectively, with >90% uptake in children <2 years. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) uptake among >65 years was ~75%. For pre-PCV episodes with missing serotype, extrapolations were applied. Overall, PCV13 serotypes (VT13) and non-VT13 (NVT) incidence rates ratios (IRRs) comparing pre-PCV (2004-2008), early-PCV (2009-2011) and late-PCV13 (2016-2019) periods were calculated for different age groups.
RESULTS: Overall, 8,614 IPD cases were recorded. IPD rates declined by 67% in children <5 and 5-17 years, comparing late-PCV13 vs. pre-PCV periods (IRR=0.33; CI: 0.27-0.40; and IRR=0.33; CI: 0.21-0.50, respectively). For adults, comparing late-PCV13 vs. early-PCV periods, rates significantly declined by 53% in 18-44 years, while rates did not decline significantly in other age groups.VT13 rates significantly declined in all ages, with decline rates ranging between 94% in children <5 years and 60% in adults ≥85 years. NVT rates significantly increased in <5, 50-64 and ≥65 years age groups. In late-PCV13 period, serotypes 3, 14 and 19A remained the predominant VT13, while serotypes 8 and 12F emerged as the predominant NVT.
CONCLUSIONS: Continuous monitoring of circulating serotypes in all ages demonstrated direct and indirect PCV effects, which are essential for the development of new vaccination strategies.