Early Detection of Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Cells Using Raman Spectroscopy-Based Machine Learning

Uraib Sharaha, Daniel Hania, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Cancer is the most common and fatal disease around the globe, with an estimated 19 million newly diagnosed patients and approximately 10 million deaths annually. Patients with cancer struggle daily due to difficult treatments, pain, and financial and social difficulties. Detecting the disease in its early stages is critical in increasing the likelihood of recovery and reducing the financial burden on the patient and society. Currently used methods for the diagnosis of cancer are time-consuming, producing discomfort and anxiety for patients and significant medical waste. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of Raman spectroscopy-based machine learning for the identification and characterization of precancerous and cancerous cells. As a representative model, normal mouse primary fibroblast cells (NFC) as healthy cells; a mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3), as precancerous cells; and fully malignant mouse fibroblasts (MBM-T) as cancerous cells were used. Raman spectra were measured from three different sites of each of the 457 investigated cells and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Our results showed that it was possible to distinguish between the normal and abnormal (precancerous and cancerous) cells with a success rate of 93.1%; this value was 93.7% when distinguishing between normal and precancerous cells and 80.2% between precancerous and cancerous cells. Moreover, there was no influence of the measurement site on the differentiation between the different examined biological systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1909
Issue number14
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • cancer
  • machine learning
  • MBM (cancerous cells)
  • NIH/3T3
  • normal fibroblast cells (NFC)
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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