The factors that determine the outcomes of host–pathogen interactions, such as host specificity, tissue specificity, and transition from asymptomatic to symptomatic behavior of a pathogen, are yet to be deciphered. The initial interaction of a pathogen with host and host-associated factors play a crucial role in deciding such outcomes. One of the several host-factors that contribute to bacterial adhesion and the outcome of an infection is the activation of early growth response 1 (EGR1). EGR1 is an initial response transcriptional regulator that plays a vital role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. EGR1 expression is seen in most of the mammalian tissues. Multiple post-translational modifications occur, which modulate the EGR1 transcriptional activity. Upon activation, EGR1 can transactivate several genes with diverse cellular functions, including transcriptional regulatory proteins and cell proliferation. EGR1 has also been identified as a potential mediator of inflammatory gene expression. Recent studies have highlighted the role of EGR1 as a potent signaling molecule that facilitates bacterial adhesion to host epithelial cells, thus modulating colonization pathways. The pathways for the regulation of EGR1 during host–pathogen interaction remain yet unidentified. The review focuses on the role and regulation of EGR1 during host–pathogen interaction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology