Early identification of dementia: Predictive validity of the Clock Test

Norm O'Rourke, Holly Tuokko, Sherri Hayden, B. Lynn Beattie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Various clock scoring procedures have been developed in recent years as dementia screening measures. The current longitudinal study was developed to assess the predictive validity of the Clock Test (Tuokko, Hadjistavropoulos, Miller Horton, and Beattie, 1995). Within a sample of subjects who initially did not meet dementia criteria, Clock Test scores (drawing, setting, and reading) distinguished between those who later met criteria for dementia as compared to subjects who did not. When impaired performance was identified as falling below cut-off on two or more subtests of the Clock Test, sensitivity and specificity were found to be 91% and 95% relative to time two diagnosis. Clock errors among the current sample were compared against normal control subjects from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). These comparative analyses attest to the relative normality of the clinic sample at the time of their initial assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-267
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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