Economic Openness and Educational Expansion

Mark Gradstein, Denis Nikitin, Heng Fu Zou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper documents the vast expansion of schooling over the past several decades. It begins by considering international panel data and makes the observation that poor countries today have higher average education levels than countries at the same level of economic development used to have in the past. It is then argued that this trend can be attributed to the enhanced demand for schooling because of the increase in openness. The analysis of educational expansion in a cross-country framework and in China’s provinces provides support for the view that educational expansion is related to the economy’s openness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-235
Number of pages23
JournalAnnals of Economics and Finance
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2023


  • Cross-country analysis
  • Economic openness
  • Educational expansion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Finance
  • Economics and Econometrics


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