Effect of Chemotherapy Cytarabine and Acute Myeloid Leukemia on the Development of Spermatogenesis at the Adult Age of Immature Treated Mice

Bara’Ah Khaleel, Eitan Lunenfeld, Joseph Kapelushnik, Mahmoud Huleihel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for around 20% of diagnosed childhood leukemia. Cytarabine (CYT) is involved in the AML treatment regimen. AML and CYT showed impairment in spermatogenesis in human and rodents in adulthood. We successfully developed an AML disease model in sexually immature mice. Monocytes and granulocytes were examined in all groups: untreated control, AML alone, CYT alone and AML+CYT (in combination). There was a significant increase in the counts of monocytes and granulocytes in the AML-treated immature mice (AML) compared to the control, and AML cells were demonstrated in the blood vessels of the testes. AML alone and CYT alone impaired the development of spermatogenesis at the adult age of the AML-treated immature mice. The damage was clear in the structure/histology of their seminiferous tubules, and an increase in the apoptotic cells of the seminiferous tubules was demonstrated. Our results demonstrated a significant decrease in the meiotic/post-meiotic cells compared to the control. However, CYT alone (but not AML) significantly increased the count of spermatogonial cells (premeiotic cells) that positively stained with SALL4 and PLZF per tubule compared to the control. Furthermore, AML significantly increased the count of proliferating spermatogonial cells that positively stained with PCNA in the seminiferous tubules compared to the control, whereas CYT significantly decreased the count compared to the control. Our result showed that AML and CYT affected the microen-vironment/niche of the germ cells. AML significantly decreased the levels growth factors, such as SCF, GDNF and MCSF) compared to control, whereas CYT significantly increased the levels of MCSF and GDNF compared to control. In addition, AML significantly increased the RNA expression levels of testicular IL-6 (a proinflammatory cytokine), whereas CYT significantly decreased testicular IL-6 levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, AML alone and CYT alone significantly decreased RNA expression levels of testicular IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) compared to the control group. Our results demonstrate that pediatric AML disease with or without CYT treatment impairs spermatogenesis at adult age (the impairment was more pronounced in AML+CYT) compared to control. Thus, we suggest that special care should be considered for children with AML who are treated with a CYT regimen regarding their future fertility at adult age.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4013
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • apoptosis
  • chemotherapy
  • immature mice
  • male infertility
  • pre-pubertal
  • spermatogenesis
  • testis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Chemotherapy Cytarabine and Acute Myeloid Leukemia on the Development of Spermatogenesis at the Adult Age of Immature Treated Mice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this