Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on the Development of Spermatogenesis in the Adulthood of Juvenile AML Mice Model Treated with Cytarabine

Bara’ah Khaleel, Eitan Lunenfeld, Joseph Kapelushnik, Mahmoud Huleihel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) generally occurs de novo. The treatment of AML includes cytarabine (CYT) and other medications. The granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is used in the clinic in cases of neutropenia after chemotherapies. We show that the administration of GCSF in combination with CYT in AML-diagnosed mice (AML+CYT+GCSF) extended the survival of mice for additional 20 days. However, including GCSF in all treatment modalities does not affect the testis’ weight or the histology of the seminiferous tubules (STs). We show that GCSF does not affect normal ST histology from AML-, CYT-, or (AML+CYT)-treated groups compared to the relevant treated group without GCSF 2, 4, and 5 weeks post-injection. However, when comparing the percentages of normal STs between the AML+CYT+GCSF-treated groups and those without GCSF, we observe an increase of 17%–42% in STs at 4 weeks and 5.5 weeks post-injection. Additionally, we show that the injection of GCSF into the normal, AML-alone, or CYT-alone groups, or in combination with AML, significantly decreases the percentage of STs with apoptotic cells compared to the relevant groups without GCSF and to the CT (untreated mice) only 2 weeks post-injection. We also show that injection of GCSF into the CT group increases the examined spermatogonial marker PLZF within 2 weeks post-injection. However, GCSF does not affect the count of meiotic cells (CREM) but decreases the post-meiotic cells (ACROSIN) within 4 weeks post-injection. Furthermore, GCSF not only extends the survival of the AML+CYT-treated group, but it also leads to the generation of sperm (1.2 ± 0.04 × 106/mL) at 5.5 weeks post-injection. In addition, we demonstrate that the injection of GCSF into the CT group increases the RNA expression level of IL-10 but not IL-6 compared to CT 2 weeks post-treatment. However, the injection of GCSF into the AML-treated group reverses the expression levels of both IL-10 and IL-6 to normal levels compared to CT 2 weeks post-injection. Thus, we suggest that the addition of GCSF to the regimen of AML after CYT may assist in the development of future therapeutic strategies to preserve male fertility in AML prepubertal patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12229
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume24
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023

Keywords

  • acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • chemotherapy
  • granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF)
  • male fertility preservation
  • male infertility
  • prepubertal patients
  • spermatogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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