Effect of the scanning strategy on the formation of residual stresses in additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

M. Strantza, R. K. Ganeriwala, B. Clausen, T. Q. Phan, L. E. Levine, D. C. Pagan, J. P.C. Ruff, W. E. King, N. S. Johnson, R. M. Martinez, V. Anghel, G. Rafailov, D. W. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


During the laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, high laser intensities, short interaction times and highly localized heat input drive large thermal gradients that result in a state of high residual stresses. Generally, the residual stresses that develop during the L-PBF process can compromise the performance of the component. Up to now, the literature has indicated that the magnitude of the residual stresses can be affected by various process parameters. In this study, all process parameters such as laser power and speed are held fixed and the focus is solely on the effect of the laser scan strategy on the three-dimensional residual stress state of L-PBF metallic components. Four Ti-6Al-4V bridge shaped components were built using island and continuous scanning patterns parallel and offset 45° from the sample axes. High-energy X-ray diffraction was used to determine the residual stress field in each of the components. Two of them were re-measured after being partially removed from the build plate. The assumptions implicit in diffraction measurements of stress are reviewed and discussed in depth because the unique microstructure associated with L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V renders the validity of those assumptions uncertain. Specifically, additional data was collected and analyzed to evaluate the relationship between grain scale and macroscopic scale stresses. The observed residual stresses were large, ½ to ¾ of the yield strength, particularly the build direction stresses near the lateral edges of the bridges. In this work, the higher stresses were observed in the bridges built via the island scan strategies, chiefly near the edges of the parts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102003
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Laser powder bed fusion
  • Residual stress
  • Ti-6Al-4V
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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