A review of enforcement strategies with and without public information campaigns was conducted. The studies dealing with these issues are evaluated in terms of basic psychological concepts such as reinforcement theory and perceived risk. It was concluded that the effectiveness of enforcement is dependent on the perceived risk, and perceived risk requires a minimal level of objective risk. They can both be enhanced by the appearance of threat, the degree of uncertainty, and extensive, continuous publicity, preferably in the form of news coverage. Specific recommendations for combining reinforcement and information as well as for a further study are made. Refs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Engineering (all)