Eigen microstates and their evolutions in complex systems

Yu Sun, Gaoke Hu, Yongwen Zhang, Bo Lu, Zhenghui Lu, Jingfang Fan, Xiaoteng Li, Qimin Deng, Xiaosong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Emergence refers to the existence or formation of collective behaviors in complex systems. Here, we develop a theoretical framework based on the eigen microstate theory to analyze the emerging phenomena and dynamic evolution of complex system. In this framework, the statistical ensemble composed of M microstates of a complex system with N agents is defined by the normalized N × M matrix A, whose columns represent microstates and order of row is consist with the time. The ensemble matrix A can be decomposed as A = ∑I=1r σI UI ⊗ VI}, where r= min (N,M), eigenvalue σI behaves as the probability amplitude of the eigen microstate UI so that ∑I=1r σI2 = 1 and U I evolves following V I . In a disorder complex system, there is no dominant eigenvalue and eigen microstate. When a probability amplitude σI becomes finite in the thermodynamic limit, there is a condensation of the eigen microstate UI in analogy to the Bose-Einstein condensation of Bose gases. This indicates the emergence of UI and a phase transition in complex system. Our framework has been applied successfully to equilibrium three-dimensional Ising model, climate system and stock markets. We anticipate that our eigen microstate method can be used to study non-equilibrium complex systems with unknown order-parameters, such as phase transitions of collective motion and tipping points in climate systems and ecosystems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065603
JournalCommunications in Theoretical Physics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Earth system
  • complex system
  • critical phenomena
  • dynamic evolution
  • econophysics
  • eigen microstate
  • phase transition
  • statistical ensemble

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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