Electrical Equalization Analysis of PAM-4 Transmission in Short-Reach Optical Systems

Dana Arie, Gilad Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Inclusive and intensive performance analysis of electrical equalizers in a short-reach optical system using four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is presented in this paper. Two equalizers are used—a feedforward equalizer and decision feedback equalizer using the least mean square algorithm. The sensitivity to cut-off frequency for the transmitter and receiver filters, fiber length and number of equalizers taps in the means of the bit error rate vs. optical input power are shown. The analysis reveals the considerable impact of the filters’ bandwidth, particularly in the receiver, on the equalizer performance. These results and their reasons are analyzed and broadly discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2255
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Chromatic dispersion
  • Decision feedback equalizer
  • Feedforward equalizer
  • Inter-symbol interference
  • Least mean square

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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