The von Neumann architecture which is based upon the principle of one complex processor that sequentially performs a single complex task at a given moment has dominated computing technology for the past 50 years. However, alternative computational systems based on entirely different principles are explored. Emerging from disparate domains, the work behind these systems shares a common computational philosophy called cellular computing. It provides new means for doing computation more efficiently, in terms of speed, cost, power dissipation, information storage, and solution quality. Simultaneously, cellular computing offers the potential of addressing much larger problem instances than previously possible, at least for some application domains.