Encoding and processing of alphanumeric information by chemical mixtures

Tamar Ratner, Ofer Reany, Ehud Keinan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


A novel infochemical device that is based on 1H NMR readout of chemical information is presented. This chemical encoding system utilizes two measurable parameters of homogeneous mixtures, chemical shift and peak integration, for three different applications: 1) a text-encoding device that is based on spectral representation of a sequence of symbols, 2) encoding of 21-digit binary numbers, each represented by an NMR spectrum, and their algebraic manipulations, such as addition and subtraction, and 3) encoding of 21-digit decimal numbers. The first application enables molecular information storage and encryption. The relative concentration of each component, as measured by the relevant peak integration, can represent a symbol. The second application of this system, in addition to its obvious memory capability, enables mathematical operations. The NMR spectrum of a given mixture represents a 21- digit binary number where each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures (numbers) each compound is either present or absent, representing either 1 or 0, respectively. We used the various binary numbers to carry out addition operations by combining two or more solutions (numbers). Subtraction operations were also preformed by digital processing of the information. The third application is the representation of decimal numbers. As before, each of the peaks encodes for a specific digit. In any of the input mixtures each compound is present in one of 10 different relative concentrations, representing the 10 digits of a decimal number.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3303-3309
Number of pages7
Issue number18
StatePublished - 21 Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Encoding
  • Infochemistry
  • Information storage
  • Molecular arithmetics
  • NMR spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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