Encyclopedia of machine learning

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Ever since the dawn of artificial intelligence in the 1950s, games have been part and parcel of this lively field. In 1957, a year after the Dartmouth Conference that marked the official birth of AI, Alex Bernstein designed a program for the IBM 704 that played two amateur games of chess. In 1958, Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon introduced a more sophisticated chess program (beaten in thirty-five moves by a ten-year-old beginner in its last official game played in 1960). Arthur L. Samuel of IBM spent much of the 1950s working on game-playing AI programs, and by 1961 he had a checkers program that could play at the master’s level. In 1961 and 1963, Donald Michie described a simple trial-and-error learning system for learning how to play Tic-Tac-Toe (or Noughts and Crosses) called MENACE (for Matchbox Educable Noughts and Crosses Engine). These are but examples of highly popular games that have been treated by AI researchers since the field’s inception.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of machine learning
EditorsClaude Sammut, Geoffrey I Webb
PublisherSpringer, Boston, MA
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-387-30164-8
ISBN (Print)978-0-387-30768-8
StatePublished - Nov 2010


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