Endomorphin-1 and -2 immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus are labeled by fluoro-gold injections to the ventral tegmental area

Thomas N. Greenwell, Abraham Zangen, Sheryl Martin-Schild, Roy A. Wise, James E. Zadina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Endomorphin-1 and -2 (EM1, EM2) are endogenous opioids with high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. Cells expressing EM-like immunoreactivity (EM-LI) are present in the hypothalamus, and fibers containing EM-LI project to many brain regions, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA is one of the most sensitive brain regions for the rewarding and locomotor effects of opioids. It contains mu-opioid receptors, which are thought to mediate γ-aminobutyric acid-dependent disinhibition of dopamine transmission to the nucleus accumbens. We investigated whether hypothalamic EM-LI cells project to the VTA, where they could play a natural role in this circuitry. The retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) was microinjected into the anterior or posterior VTA in rats. Nine days later, colchicine was injected, and 24 hours later, the animals were perfused and processed for fluorescence immunocytochemistry. Numerous FG-labeled cells were detected in the hypothalamus. Both EM1-LI and EM2-LI cells were present in the periventricular nucleus, between the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamus and between the ventromedial and arcuate nuclei. Subpopulations of EM1-LI and EM2-LI cells were labeled by FG. Injections of FG to the anterior and posterior VTA were both effective in producing double-labeled cells, and an anterior-posterior topographical organization between the VTA and hypothalamus was observed. The results support the idea that some endomorphin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus project to the VTA, where they may modulate reward and locomotor circuitry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-328
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 16 Dec 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Immunocytochemistry
  • Opioid
  • Reinforcement
  • Reward

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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