Energy based image steganography using dynamic programming

Ron Shmueli, Tal Shmueli, Ofer Hadar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Image steganography is the art of hiding information in a cover image in such a way that a third party does not notice the hidden information. This paper presents a novel technique for image steganography in the spatial domain. The new method hides and recovers hidden information of substantial length within digital imagery, while maintaining the size and quality of the original image. The image gradient is used to generate a saliency image, which represent the energy of each pixel in the image. Pixels with higher energy are more salient and they are valuable for hiding data since their visual impairment is low. From the saliency image, a cumulative maximum energy matrix is created; this matrix is used to generate horizontal seams that pass over the maximum energy path. By embedding the secret bits of information along the seams, a stego-image is created which contains the hidden message. In the stegoimage, we ensure that the hidden data is invisible, with very small perceived image quality degradation. The same algorithms are used to reconstruct the hidden message from the stego-image. Experiments have been conducted using two types of image and two types of hidden data to evaluate the proposed technique. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a high capacity and good invisibility, with a Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) of about 70, and a Structural SIMilarity index (SSIM) of about 1.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationApplications of Digital Image Processing XLII
EditorsAndrew G. Tescher, Touradj Ebrahimi
ISBN (Electronic)9781510629677
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
EventApplications of Digital Image Processing XLII 2019 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 12 Aug 201915 Aug 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceApplications of Digital Image Processing XLII 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • Cover Image
  • Covert channel
  • Image steganography
  • Information hiding
  • Seam carving
  • Watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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