Ensemble and time averages: The missing diamagnetic effect

R. Steinitz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


We address three features related to magnetic structures at the Solar suface: "Cool" sunspots, "Hot" corona and "Very High Speed" solar wind. We argue that the diamagnetic effect has been neglected in modelling the thermal and dynamic properties of these features. This omission is due to the difference between time averages and ensemble averages, for plasmas imbedded in diverging magnetic field structures. Gravity, combined with the correct time averages, yield speed filters; these provide cooling of spots, heating the corona and can accelerate the solar wind to high speeds. Thus, all three features can be understood in terms of one single mechanism, the diamagnetic effect.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCOSPAR Colloquia Series
PublisherElsevier Masson SAS
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2002

Publication series

NameCOSPAR Colloquia Series
ISSN (Print)0964-2749

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Ensemble and time averages: The missing diamagnetic effect'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this