BACKGROUND: To compare the epidemiologic, microbiologic and imaging characteristics of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children <2 years of age with and without anatomic urinary tract abnormalities (AA).
METHODS: All children hospitalized with UTI during 1.1.2005-31.12.2018 were included. The study group (patients with AA) included 76 patients. The control group (99 patients) included patients without AA.
RESULTS: 1163 children were hospitalized. Age at diagnosis was younger in the study group vs. controls (5.2 ± 6.0 vs. 7.9 ± 7.5 months, P = 0.038). Uropathogens distribution was different (P = 0.007), with lower Escherichia coli (Ec) and Proteus mirabilis (Pm) percentages in the study group and higher percentages of Enterococcus spp. (Ent) in controls. In the study group, Ec nonsusceptibility rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefuroxime, TMP/SMX and ceftriaxone were 58%, 40%, 14%, 14%, 12% and 10%, respectively, with no differences vs. controls. Ultrasound (US) was performed in 69/76 (98%) patients with AA (84.1%, abnormal); bilateral (39.7%) and unilateral (32.7%) ureteral dilatation were the most frequent findings. Voiding cystourethrography was performed in 46 patients (pathologic in 35, 76%); 31 (81.6%) patients had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (bilateral in 11, 35.5%; grade 4/5 in 7 patients). Uropathogens distribution in VUR patients differed between study and control groups, with lower Ec and Pm in the first group and higher Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ent percentages in the control group.
CONCLUSION: Age at diagnosis was lower and pathogen distribution was different in patients with AA. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the main uropathogens were similar between patients with or without AA.