Ergonomic design of new paramedic response bags

Y. Bitan, S. Ramey, Paul Milgram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


A two phase project is described for redesigning and evaluating paramedic response bags, one of the key pieces of equipment used by emergency medical services. Adopting a user-centred approach, Phase I involved first educating active service paramedics about ergonomic principles, and then collaborating with them to conceptualise a new type of response bag, based on separate colour coded kits, each containing related equipment items. Phase II describes a formal evaluation study, involving simulated procedures with a patient mannequin and active service paramedics in a real ambulance. Results indicated subjective preferences for the new bags, where 62% of the paramedics believed it was easier to find equipment in the new bag and 65% preferred the new bags overall. No detrimental effects were attributed to the transition to the new bag. Also discussed are the advantages of the participatory design approach, as well as design guidelines and implications for paramedic operations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102890
JournalApplied Ergonomics
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • Emergency medical services
  • Ergonomic workspace
  • Paramedic services
  • Response bags

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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