Evaluating levels of automation with different feedback modes in an assistive robotic table clearing task for eldercare

Dana Gutman, Samuel A. Olatunji, Noa Markfeld, Shai Givati, Vardit Sarne-Fleischmann, Tal Oron-Gilad, Yael Edan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This paper focuses on how the autonomy level of an assistive robot that offers support for older adults in a daily task and its feedback affect the interaction. Identifying the level of automation (LOA) that prioritizes older adults’ preferences while avoiding passiveness and sedentariness is challenging. The feedback mode should match the cognitive and perceptual capabilities of older adults and the LOA. We characterized three LOAs and paired them with two modes of feedback in a human-robot collaborative task. Twenty-seven older adults participated in evaluating the LOA-feedback variations in a mixed experimental design, utilizing an experimental setup of an assistive robot in a table clearing task. The quality of the interaction was evaluated with objective and subjective measures. The combination of high LOA with voice feedback improved the overall interaction when compared to other LOA and feedback combinations. This study emphasizes the importance of appropriate coupling of LOA and feedback for successful interaction of the older adults with an assistive robot.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103859
JournalApplied Ergonomics
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Assistive robots
  • Human-robot interaction
  • Interaction design
  • Older adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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