Evaluation of a Midwife- and Nurse-Delivered 5 A's Prenatal Smoking Cessation Program

Ilana R.Azulay Chertok, Stacey Haynes Archer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Introduction: West Virginia has the highest rate of prenatal smoking in the United States. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 5 A's smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women being cared for by 5 A's-trained midwives working with a team of nurse researchers in an effort to reduce prenatal smoking exposure. The evidence-based 5 A's smoking cessation program has been recommended for use in prenatal care by health care providers. Methods: A pilot study was conducted evaluating the implementation of the 5 A's prenatal smoking cessation program for 35 women who smoked during pregnancy. The women received consistent messages to quit or reduce smoking from the midwives and were followed by the nurse research team via telephone with continued support, guidance, and strategic planning for tobacco exposure reduction. Results: Among the 35 women who enrolled in the study, 32 (91.4%) decreased smoking and 3 (8.6%) quit smoking by one month after the intervention. For those who continued to smoke, the average number of cigarettes smoked was reduced from 10 cigarettes per day at baseline to 8 cigarettes per day at one month, 7 cigarettes per day at 2 months, and 6 cigarettes per day by the end of pregnancy. The women further reduced their tobacco exposure by delaying the timing of initiating smoking in the morning and by increasing indoor smoking restrictions. Discussion: Midwives and nurses can be trained in the implementation of the evidence-based 5 A's smoking cessation program for incorporation into regular prenatal care of pregnant women who smoke. By guiding women in techniques aimed at reducing the amount and frequency of cigarette smoking, nurses and midwives facilitate a decrease in prenatal smoking exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-181
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Midwifery and Women's Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • 5 A's program
  • Health promotion
  • Midwifery
  • Prenatal care
  • Smoking cessation
  • Smoking reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery


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