We construct exactly soluble lattice models for fractionalized, time-reversal-invariant electronic insulators in two and three dimensions. The low-energy physics of these models is exactly equivalent to a noninteracting topological insulator built out of fractionally charged fermionic quasiparticles. We show that some of our models have protected edge modes [in two dimensions (2D)] and surface modes (in 3D), and are thus fractionalized analogs of topological insulators. We also find that some of the 2D models do not have protected edge modes; that is, the edge modes can be gapped out by appropriate time-reversal-invariant, charge-conserving perturbations. (A similar state of affairs may also exist in 3D.) We show that all of our models are topologically ordered, exhibiting fractional statistics as well as ground-state degeneracy on a torus. In the 3D case, we find that the models exhibit a fractional magnetoelectric effect.
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - 27 Dec 2011|