Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, M. R. Kokta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus citations


An experimental study of saturable absorption and excited-state absorption (ESA) in several inorganic saturable absorbers, Cr4+:YAG, Cr4+:GGG, and Cr4+:YSGG, is presented. We provide the theoretical background of absorption characteristics in saturable absorbers that exhibit ESA, with some new results: approximate analytical solutions are proposed for the optical transmission in the case of a slow absorber, and for various light intensity conditions of spatially or temporally Gaussian beams in fast and slow absorbers. Experimentally, partial bleaching of the first excited state itself could be observed in Cr4+:YAG at λ = 1064 nm, yielding the higher excited-state lifetime as τ* = (0.55 ± 0.1) ns. The regular transmission bleaching curve was measured in Cr4+:GGG, for the first time in this material, yielding σgs = (58 ± 5) × 10-19 cm2, and σes = (13 ± 2) × 10-19 cm2 at λ = 1064 nm. ESA spectra were measured for the three materials between ∼700 and 900 nm. All three exhibit crossing between saturable absorption at longer wavelengths and inverse saturable absorption at shorter wavelengths.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-299
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 1998


  • Absorbing media
  • Optical propagation in absorbing media
  • Optical saturation
  • Spectroscopy
  • YAG materials/devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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