Executive Functions and Adherence to Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Alon Farfel, Alon Liberman, Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Moshe Phillip, Revital Nimri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has a beneficial impact on diabetes control; however, its utilization within people with diabetes remains low. The success of CGM requires cluster of cognitive skills and executive functions (EF). We speculated that participants with high EF would be more adherent to CGM use. Materials and Methods: The study population included 85 children and adolescents between 5 and 18 years old being followed for type 1 diabetes. Participants and their parents completed three questionnaires - "Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function" (BRIEF), CGM satisfaction, and a questionnaire assessing reasons for discontinuing CGM use. Results: Sixty-one participants used CGM on a regular basis and 24 discontinued use. Adherent participants were significantly younger than participants with nonadherence to CGM (P = 0.011). No significant differences were found between gender, diabetes duration, or HbA1c. Females adhering to CGM had a significantly higher "organization of environment" skill than those with nonadherence to CGM (P = 0.023). Also, adherent participants older than 14 years had a higher "organization of environment" skill than participants with nonadherence to CGM (P = 0.032). No difference was found between the groups in other EF domains. Alarm fatigue was found to be the main reason for discontinuing CGM. Conclusions: Given the interplay between CGM adherence and EF, it is recommended that people with diabetes should receive training by a multidisciplinary team, including psychological counseling, before CGM use and thus preparing them to cope with the demands of CGM and to avoid false expectations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-270
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Adherence
  • Adolescence
  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • Executive functions
  • T1DM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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