Exposure-response associations between chronic exposure to fine particulate matter and risks of hospital admission for major cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study

Yaguang Wei, Yijing Feng, Mahdieh Danesh Yazdi, Kanhua Yin, Edgar Castro, Alexandra Shtein, Xinye Qiu, Adjani A. Peralta, Brent A. Coull, Francesca Dominici, Joel D. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To estimate exposure-response associations between chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risks of the first hospital admission for major cardiovascular disease (CVD) subtypes. Design: Population based cohort study. Setting: Contiguous US. Participants: 59 761 494 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years during 2000-16. Calibrated PM2.5 predictions were linked to each participant's residential zip code as proxy exposure measurements. Main outcome measures: Risk of the first hospital admission during follow-up for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, valvular heart disease, thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, or a composite of these CVD subtypes. A causal framework robust against confounding bias and bias arising from errors in exposure measurements was developed for exposure-response estimations. Results: Three year average PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased relative risks of first hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. For composite CVD, the exposure-response curve showed monotonically increased risk associated with PM2.5: compared with exposures ≤5 μg/m3 (the World Health Organization air quality guideline), the relative risk at exposures between 9 and 10 μg/m3, which encompassed the US national average of 9.7 μg/m3 during the study period, was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 1.30). On an absolute scale, the risk of hospital admission for composite CVD increased from 2.59% with exposures ≤5 μg/m3 to 3.35% at exposures between 9 and 10 μg/m3. The effects persisted for at least three years after exposure to PM2.5. Age, education, accessibility to healthcare, and neighborhood deprivation level appeared to modify susceptibility to PM2.5. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that no safe threshold exists for the chronic effect of PM2.5 on overall cardiovascular health. Substantial benefits could be attained through adherence to the WHO air quality guideline.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere076939
JournalBMJ
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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